Plagiarism is defined as the use of another person’s ideas and language without attribution, where attribution refers to giving the original author(s) credit.

The formatting of this attribution will vary depending on the citation style used; however, it will always include the name(s) of the original author(s) and an end-of-text bibliographical list—such as a References or Works Cited page—with corresponding details so that the original source may be located by a reader.  

Plagiarism ALSO refers to the re-use of your own work without permission from your professor. This is called self-plagiarism, and it holds the same consequences as plagiarizing an outside source.

University classes require you to produce new work that demonstrates your thought processes and insights based on your current learning. The re-use of a paper from another class and/or another semester does not meet this requirement, is considered ethical misconduct, and subsequently is a form of plagiarism. If you wish to re-use past work, you must first speak with your professor and secure their permission.


Intentional Plagiarism includes:

  • Copying someone else's work from a website, textbook, article, or other media form and presenting it as your own.
  • Paying someone to write your paper or create your project.
  • Using AI (like ChatGPT) to generate your paper or project.
  • Presenting someone else’s ideas as your own when they are not.
  • Re-using a past paper or sections of a paper from another class without your professor’s permission.

Unintentional Plagiarism includes:

  • Misunderstanding your chosen attribution system—such as MLA, APA, AMA, or Chicago Style—and incorrectly formatting your attribution.
  • Misunderstanding how to integrate quotations, resulting in missing key information and punctuation.
  • Misunderstanding how to paraphrase a source, resulting in patchwriting. Click the Paraphrasing & Patchwriting tab to learn more.

Tip: Unintentional plagiarism may be seen as a learning opportunity by your professor, although repeated unintentional plagiarism offenses quickly cease to be unintentional.


Potential Consequences of Plagiarizing:

  • Failing the assignment with ability to resubmit it.
  • Failing the assignment without the ability to resubmit it.
  • Failing the class.
  • Suspension or dismissal from Newman University by the Academic Review Board. Click the Ethics Code tab to see a more detailed review of how ethical misconduct is handled at Newman University.

Tip: Your professor may have a built-in plagiarism policy in their syllabus. View your class syllabus to find out the exact consequences for intentional and unintentional plagiarism.


Best Practices & Advice to Avoid Plagiarism:

  • Time management! Give yourself a reasonable amount of time to complete the assignment. Most instances of plagiarism occur because an assignment is rushed.
  • Take detailed notes while researching, including author details and bibliographical information from each source.
  • Build your bibliographical list (References or Works Cited) as you go!
  • Only use trustworthy citations generators—such as the citation button from the Newman University research databases.
  • Ask your professor, a Newman librarian, an embedded or peer tutor for your course, or the Student Support Specialist in the Student Success Center for additional help.
  • Use a reference guide for your citation style to double check any in-text and end-of-text citations, such as the MLA 9 Handbook, the APA 7 Manual, the OWL of Purdue website, or Newman's Dugan Library Guides:





Ethics Code

Newman University students are to function as ethical citizens, which includes their work pursued in the academic community.

Integrity in the classroom is a definite expectation and is not to be violated in any manner. Violation of academic integrity includes:

1. Unauthorized or Unacknowledged Use of advanced generative AI (ChatGPT, GPT4, Bing Chat, etc.) in completing assignments, exams, or papers is a form of academic dishonesty. Faculty members set parameters for when and how the use of such technology is permissible. Students should consult the course syllabus and assignment guidelines, as policies will vary across courses, instructors, and assignments. If specific parameters are not outlined by the instructor, students should assume the use of generative AI is prohibited.

2. Cheating on examinations, written quizzes, and other written work;

3. Plagiarism, defined as:

  1. the use of another’s written work without appropriate citation
  2. the use of another student’s work
  3. the purchase and/or use of an already prepared paper
  4. the use of Intellectual Properties (ideas or materials) from an author without proper documentation
  5. downloading of materials from the Internet or World Wide Web and submitting them for credit (or partial credit) as one’s own work;

4. Any violation of state or federal fair use, copyright, patent, or privacy laws;

5. Giving assistance to another person during an examination;

6. Falsification or changing of any academic record;

7. Falsification of research or clinical data;

8. Obtaining, attempting to obtain, or distributing unauthorized examinations or examination questions;

9. Use of a paper prepared for one course in another course without the evaluating professor’s knowledge and permission.

An infraction of the Newman ethical code by a student on an examination, written work, or quiz will result in an “F” for that work. An individual faculty member, if outlined in their syllabus,  may impose a more severe penalty; up to and including failure of the course. Within a professional program an academic infraction may be referred to a standing committee designated by program policy to review such occurrences (e.g., Admissions and Progressions Committee).

Upon assignment of the consequence(s) the faculty member will complete the Academic Infraction Form and submit it to Academic Affairs Office for filing. A student who believes an error in judgement has occurred regarding either the infraction or the subsequent penalty may appeal the faculty decision. The request for appeal must be submitted in writing to the Associate Vice President of Academic Affairs within 30 days of receiving notice of the penalty. 

Upon examination of the Academic Infraction Form and any subsequent evidence provided the Associate Vice President of Academic Affairs may request a hearing of the Academic Review Board to review a pattern of academic infractions. The Academic Review Board consists of the Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, a School Dean, and a faculty member of the student’s choosing. The Academic Review Board may utilize a variety of penalties up to and including dismissing a student from the university for academic infractions. 


We quote when we restate a phrase or sentence(s) from an outside source word for word.

The formatting of a quote will vary depending on the citation style, but generally a quote belongs inside quotation marks and is followed by an in-text citation, which is a parenthetical insertion with bibliographical information from the quoted source.


Quotes Should:

  • Be chosen carefully.
  • Fit into the fabric of your discussion.
  • Say something well.


Best Times to Quote:

  • The original author says it best.
  • There’s only one way to say it.
  • Particularly important evidence—research, statistics, definition—that cannot be phrased another way.


Here is an example of when the author says it best:

When Neil Armstrong landed on the moon, he broadcast to the world: “That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind” (July 21, 1969).


The example above begins with an author signal or lead-in that tells the reader who said the quoted phrase. It ends in an APA 7 in-text citation, which supplies the bibliographical information that has not appeared prior to the quote. In this instance, this information is the date the quote was originally said.

Armstrong’s quote is famous across the United States and beyond. It is an immediately recognizable piece of American history and culture, so the effect of this quote would be lost if it were paraphrased. Thus, Armstrong’s quote shows an example of when the author says it best.


Tip: Typically, quotes should appear as block quotes if longer than 4 lines or 40 words. Refer to your chosen citation style for correct block formatting.



We paraphrase in writing when we put the ideas of an outside source in our own words instead of quoting the ideas word for word.

  • Paraphrasing must use fresh language (or new vocabulary) and new sentence structure.
  • Paraphrasing must remain objective—free of student opinion or bias existing outside of the original source text.

Paraphrasing is not the same as summarizing. Unlike summarizing, paraphrasing does not shorten the original passage. It leaves nothing out. Paraphrases are often longer than the original passages. Summaries, in contrast, offer an overview or "the gist" of a work, so they are always shorter than the original.


Why paraphrase when we could just quote?

  • Paraphrasing is useful for maintaining most of the paper in your voice as the student-writer.
  • University assignments follow something called the 80/20 rule, which stipulates that approximately 80% of your paper or the content in your project should be in your own words. This means only 20% of your work should be quoted from outside sources. Paraphrasing helps you keep to the 80/20 rule. It lets you share the ideas from an outside source while maintaining your own voice and language.
  • Paraphrasing an outside source often leads to deeper insights and connections—or synthesis of that source. Paraphrasing a source may inadvertently lead to a better understanding of the material.


Patchwriting is the name given to paraphrasing that remains too close to the original text and is considered a form of plagiarism.

  • Patchwriting rephrases only a segment of the text, maintaining the rest of the language and sentence structure.
  • When a writer patchwrites, they literally "patch" over the original text with word substitutions.
  • SafeAssign, our university plagiarism checking system, will flag patchwritten moments as plagiarized.


Paraphrasing Steps to Avoid Patchwriting:

  1. List the details from the passage before paraphrasing to ensure nothing essential is left out.
  2. Find synonyms or new language for the terms in your list of details. Remember, your paraphrase should sound like you. Recast the language with the goal to make your paraphrase as accessible as possible.
  3. Reorder the ideas in the passage to create new sentence structure, especially when paraphrasing multi-sentence passages. Reverse/reorder the presentation of ideas and combine short sentences into one long or long sentences into multiple.
  4. Don't look at the original text! Flip the page over! Close the book or the web browser!
  5. Cite your paraphrase just like quote! Bookend your paraphrase between an author signal and an in-text citation.


An Example Using the Paraphrasing Steps:

The quoted passage below is from William Powers' 2010 nonfiction book, Hamlet's Blackberry. Its in-text citation uses the citation style MLA 9.

"Even as the number of people we're connected to rises, so do the frequency and pace of our communications. When we were still emerging from the analog age and the technology was slower, days and weeks would go by when we didn't hear from a friend or family member. Today we're in touch by the hour, the minute. It wasn't so long ago that people who received two or three hundred emails a day were considered outrageously busy, figures of pity. Now they're mainstream" (Powers 15). 


Step 1. List the Details:

Our digital interactions and connections are growing

Interactions are constant and quick

The "analog age" had lulls—moments of silence

Now: nonstop connection

So many emails = mainstream


Step 2. Find Synonyms or New Language:

Language to change: analog age, figures of pity, mainstream, etc.

"before analog age" could become "after widespread digital technology"

"Figures of pity" (in the context of emails) could become "workaholics"

"Mainstream" could become "the new normal"

Tip: The writing style in the quote is allowed to shift in your paraphrase—not only allowed but should shift. You want your paraphrases to sound like you.


Step 3-5. Reorder the Ideas/Don't Look at the Original/Cite!

Below is the final paraphrase of William Powers' passage. The paraphrase reorders the content or presentation of ideas from the original passage and is longer than the original, which is okay. Please note how the paraphrase is bookended with an author signal AND an in-text citation.


In William Powers' chapter, "Busy, Very Busy," he addresses the new normal that widespread use of digital technology has created: our constant need to respond to our growing connections. Powers explains that it is normal to receive hundreds of emails each day, although a few decades ago only workaholics had such a flooded inbox. Not only are there endless emails to answer but also hourly messages from family and friends. It used to be that one might not hear from a friend for a week or even a month. Now it seems a minute can't go by without an alert or a message, and what's worse is the urgency of these messages. We are expected to respond often and with great speed while the people we interact with constantly grows (Powers 15).


The final paraphrase above uses an author signal, including the chapter title, to alert the reader the coming content belongs to an outside source. The second sentence again places the content in the author's voice by restating the author's last name to show the paraphrase continues. The paraphrase ends in an MLA 9 in-text citation signaling the paraphrase has ended. Any sentences that appear after the close of this in-text citation will be the student-writer's ideas.


Tip A: If this paraphrase were in a paper, it would be followed by the student-writer's interpretation to integrate it into the surrounding paragraph. This interpretation would likely show how the information in this paraphrase developed or furthered the thesis.

Tip B: Never refer to the author by first name alone. This is considered disrespectful. Use the author's full name the first time they appear in your paper and then alternate between their full name, last name alone, or the author's pronoun at your own discretion.



APA 7 - Sample References


MLA 9 Sample Works Cited